Virūdhaka () (1) ［波瑠璃王］ (Pali Vidūdabha; Haruri-ō): A king of the state of Kosala in India during Shakyamuni’s lifetime. His father was Prasenajit. According to the Increasing by One Āgama Sutra, when Prasenajit ascended the throne, he wanted to take a consort from the Shākya tribe and had his wish conveyed to the Shākyas in Kapilavastu. The Shākyas were held to be of noble lineage. A Shākya named Mahānāma conceived a plan to offer his maidservant’s daughter, a beautiful woman, to the king in marriage, claiming that the daughter was his own. Prasenajit accepted, and together they had a son, Virūdhaka. When Virūdhaka was eight years old, Prasenajit sent him to Kapilavastu to have him learn archery from the Shākyas. While there, Virūdhaka was ridiculed as the son of a maidservant; thus learning of his lowly birth and that his father had been deceived, he vowed to take revenge on the Shākyas. Later, upon succeeding to the throne after Prasenajit’s death, he immediately led an army against Kapilavastu, destroying the Shākya kingdom. According to the sutra, seven days later, as the Buddha had predicted, a violent storm with heavy rain came up suddenly during the night, and Virūdhaka and his warriors, who had been staying by the riverside, drowned, falling into the hell of incessant suffering. According to The Monastic Rules on Various Matters, while Prasenajit was away from the capital, Shrāvastī, Virūdhaka usurped the throne. Informed of this, Prasenajit made his way to Rājagriha, the capital of Magadha under Ajātashatru’s rule. After he arrived there, however, he became seriously ill and died. Soon after, Virūdhaka massacred the majority of the Shākya tribe, taking revenge for the humiliation he had suffered as a youth.
(2) ［増長天］ ( Zōjō-ten or Zōchō-ten): The heavenly king Increase and Growth. One of the four heavenly kings. See Increase and Growth.