Vimalamitra ［無垢論師・無垢友］ (n.d.) (; Muku-ronji or Mukuyū): A monk of the Sarvāstivāda school, one of the major early Hinayana schools of India, and a native of Kashmir. According to Hsüan-tsang’s Record of the Western Regions, Vimalamitra traveled throughout India to learn the Buddhist sutras, treatises, and rules of monastic discipline, and became renowned for his vast knowledge of the Buddhist canon. He vowed to validate the teachings of Samghabhadra, a Sarvāstivāda scholar, which had been refuted by Vasubandhu. In addition, he decided to destroy the reputation of the deceased Vasubandhu and ruin the credibility of Mahayana Buddhism. According to the above work, however, before he reached his aim, he went mad; his tongue split in five pieces, and, tormented by remorse, he fell into the hell of incessant suffering.