Treatise on the Twelve Gates, The ［十二門論］ (Chin Shih-erh-men-lun; Jūni-mon-ron): A work attributed to Nāgārjuna (c. 150–250) and translated into Chinese in 409 by Kumārajīva. Only the Chinese version is extant. The Treatise on the Twelve Gates is one of the three treatises of the Three Treatises (Chin San-lun; Sanron) school, the other two being The Treatise on the Middle Way and The One-Hundred-Verse Treatise, and was widely studied in China and Japan. This work consists of twelve sections, each addressing a different subject. It explains the Mahayana doctrine of non-substantiality, concluding that all phenomena are non-substantial in nature.