Tao-hsüan (PY Daoxuan) (1) ［道宣］ (596–667) ( Dōsen): The founder of the Nan-shan branch of the Precepts (Lü) school in China. In 611 he entered the priesthood and studied the vinaya, or rules of monastic discipline, under Chih-shou. In 624 he went to a mountain called Chung-nan-shan to study and practice and eventually founded a school based on the precepts of The Fourfold Rules of Discipline, the vinaya text of the Dharmagupta school. The name Nan-shan derives from the name of that mountain. The Nan-shan school was the only branch of the Precepts school to survive, and later it became synonymous with the Precepts school. From 645 Tao-hsüan assisted Hsüan-tsang with his translation work. He also authored several books on precepts, as well as a number of historical works. His works include The Essentials of “The Fourfold Rules of Discipline,” which is the principal text of the Nan-shan school, and The Further Anthology of the Propagation of Light, a thirty-volume anthology of essays on Buddhism by various Chinese Buddhists. Because some of these essays are found only in this work, it is considered invaluable in the study of Chinese Buddhism. Tao-hsüan’s Continued Biographies of Eminent Priests carries on from The Biographies of Eminent Priests and contains the biographies of five hundred priests active from 502 to 645. Tao-hsüan also compiled The Great T’ang Dynasty Catalog of Buddhist Scriptures, a ten-volume catalog of the Buddhist canon.
(2) ［道璿］ ( Dōsen): A priest of China who introduced the Flower Garland (Chin Hua-yen; Kegon) school to Japan. See Dōsen.