Svātantrika school ［自立論証派］ (; Jiritsuronshō-ha): One of the two schools of Mādhyamika (Middle Way) philosophy in India. The Svātantrika school was founded by Bhāvaviveka (c. 490–570), and the other Mādhyamika school, the Prāsangika, was founded by Buddhapālita. Bhāvaviveka wrote The Treatise on the Lamp of Wisdom ( Prajnā-pradīpa), a commentary on Nāgārjuna’s Verses on the Middle Way (Madhyamaka-kārikā) in which he criticized Buddhapālita’s method of demonstrating the truth of non-substantiality. Bhāvaviveka based his reasoning on the system of Buddhist logic developed by Dignāga, which had become very influential in the world of Indian thought. See also Prāsangika school.