Risshō Kōseikai ［立正佼成会］: Literally, “Society for Establishing Righteousness and Friendly Relations.” A Japanese Buddhist lay organization. Headquartered in Tokyo, it was founded in 1938 by Nikkyō Niwano (1906–1999), a son of a farming family in Niigata Prefecture, and Myōkō Naganuma (1889–1957), a housewife from Saitama Prefecture. Based on the Lotus Sutra and inspired by the Nichiren Buddhist tradition, Risshō Kōseikai has no clergy and no formal affiliation with any other Nichiren school. It is an offshoot of the Reiyūkai, from which it separated in 1938, and emphasizes devotion to the Lotus Sutra and the efficacy of chanting its title, as well as veneration of one’s ancestors. Members believe in Shakyamuni Buddha and recite selections from the Lotus Sutra morning and evening. In terms of activities, they gather in small groups for counseling and the study of Buddhist doctrine.