gongyō ［勤行］ (): Literally, to “exert [oneself in] practice.” Generally speaking, gongyō refers to the practice of reciting Buddhist sutras in front of an object of devotion. The content and method of gongyō differ according to the school of Buddhism. In Nichiren’s (1222–1282) teaching, gongyō means to chant the daimoku of Nam-myoho-renge-kyo and recite portions of the “Expedient Means” (second) chapter and the “Life Span” (sixteenth) chapter of the Lotus Sutra with faith in the object of devotion called the Gohonzon. In The Recitation of the “Expedient Means” and “Life Span” Chapters, Nichiren states: “Though no chapter of the Lotus Sutra is negligible, among the entire twenty-eight chapters, the ‘Expedient Means’ chapter and the ‘Life Span’ chapter are particularly outstanding. The remaining chapters are all in a sense the branches and leaves of these two chapters. . . . If you recite the ‘Life Span’ and ‘Expedient Means’ chapters, then the remaining chapters will naturally be included even though you do not recite them” (71). In the gongyō of Nichiren’s practice, chanting the daimoku constitutes the fundamental practice, and therefore it is called the primary practice. Recitation of the “Expedient Means” and “Life Span” chapters helps bring forth the benefits of the primary practice and is hence called the supporting practice.