forbearance ［忍・忍辱］ ( kshānti; nin or ninniku): Also, patience or endurance. One of the six pāramitās, or six practices required of bodhisattvas. In practicing the pāramitā, or perfection, of forbearance, bodhisattvas are required to bear persecutions and difficulties and remain unperturbed. The Sutra on the Wise and the Foolish tells the story of an ascetic named Forbearance ( Kshāntivādin), who was Shakyamuni Buddha in a previous incarnation. This ascetic, when engaged in the practice of forbearance, suffered mutilation at the hands of the ruler and yet remained unperturbed. A forbearing mind is compared to a robe or armor; hence expressions such as “the robe of forbearance” and “the armor of perseverance.” They enable one to bear insult and all persecutions and to protect oneself against evils and obstructions. See also Forbearance.