Ever Wailing ［常啼菩薩］ ( Sadāprarudita; Jōtai-bosatsu): A bodhisattva who appears in the Larger Wisdom Sutra and other Wisdom sutras, as well as the Sutra of Collected Birth Stories concerning the Practice of the Six Pāramitās. He is described as devoted to the pursuit of the perfection of wisdom, unconcerned with worldly fame or fortune. He was called Ever Wailing because he wept when, despite his efforts, he could not find a teacher from whom to seek the teaching of the perfection of wisdom. According to the Larger Wisdom Sutra, Ever Wailing sought the teaching from Bodhisattva Dharmodgata who lived in the City of Fragrances. Having nothing to offer him because of his poverty, Ever Wailing attempted to sell his body in the marketplace to obtain money for alms. The god Shakra decided to test his resolve. Assuming the form of a Brahman, he appeared to Ever Wailing and said that he needed a human heart, blood, and marrow to perform a ritual dedicated to heaven. Ever Wailing agreed to provide them, and voluntarily stabbed his arm with a knife to draw blood. Then, as he cut his thigh, broke open his bones, and was about to obtain the marrow, the daughter of a wealthy householder interrupted him and volunteered to provide whatever offerings Ever Wailing might require. Upon seeing this, Shakra revealed his true form and praised Ever Wailing for his devotion.