demon ［悪鬼・鬼］ ( akki or ki): Also, evil demon, evil spirit, or simply spirit. Evil beings who torment people. Indian mythology and Buddhist scriptures mention various kinds of demons, such as rākshasa, yaksha, and kumbhānda. The “Encouraging Devotion” (thirteenth) chapter of the Lotus Sutra, for example, states: “In a muddied kalpa, in an evil age there will be many things to fear. Evil demons will take possession of others and through them curse, revile, and heap shame on us. But we, reverently trusting in the Buddha, will put on the armor of perseverance. In order to preach this sutra we will bear these difficult things.” Demon also means negative functions or influences that deprive people of happiness or vitality, and obstruct correct judgment. In contrast with the function of gods that protect people’s welfare, demons indicate forces in the environment that act to prevent or destroy human happiness. In Great Concentration and Insight, T’ien-t’ai (538–597) regarded attack by demons as one of the six causes of illness.