Comparison of Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism, A ［弁顕密二教論・二教論］ ( Ben-kemmitsu-nikyō-ron or Nikyō-ron): A work by Kōbō (774–835), the founder of the Japanese True Word (Shingon) school. In this work, Kōbō compares the esoteric teachings with the exoteric teachings and asserts that the former are superior. Kōbō designates the teachings of the Flower Garland (Kegon), Tendai, Dharma Characteristics (Hossō), Three Treatises (Sanron), and other Japanese schools as the exoteric teachings, and the teachings of the True Word school as the esoteric teachings. He asserts that only through the esoteric teachings can one attain Buddhahood in one’s present form, and that the esoteric teachings can save all people, even those who cannot be saved by the exoteric teachings. This work also outlines the ten stages of the mind.