Chishō ［智証］ (814–891): Also known as Enchin or the Great Teacher Chishō. The fifth chief priest of Enryaku-ji, the head temple of the Tendai school on Mount Hiei in Japan. He was born in Sanuki Province and was a nephew of Kōbō, the founder of the Japanese True Word (Shingon) school. He practiced under Gishin, the first chief priest of Enryaku-ji temple, and studied both the exoteric and esoteric teachings. In 853 he went to China, where he visited various places to study. He learned the T’ien-t’ai practice of concentration and insight and studied the treatises of the T’ien-t’ai school under Wu-wai at Mount T’ien-t’ai. He also learned the esoteric doctrines of the Womb Realm mandala and the Diamond Realm mandala from Fa-ch’üan at Ch’ing-lung-ssu temple. After returning to Japan in 858, he lived on Mount Hiei and contributed to the development of Tendai Esotericism. In 868 he became the chief priest of Enryaku-ji. He also erected a hall at Onjō-ji temple for performing the esoteric ceremony of anointment. His works include The Commentary on “The Treatise on the Lotus Sutra,” A Collection of Orally Transmitted Teachings, and The Essentials of the Mahāvairochana Sutra. About one hundred years after his death, priests in his lineage broke away from Mount Hiei and established the Temple (Jimon) school based at Onjō-ji temple. See also Temple school.